Prepared by: K. Myroshnyk – the first year student of the medical faculty
Academic adviser: K. Kovalenko
Foreign languages department with Latin language and Medical terminology
Higher State Educational Establishment of Ukraine “Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy”, Poltava
Mothers all over the world tell their children to eat their beans, broccoli or carrots because they make them grow big and strong. As adults, you have learned that there is much truth to mother’s words. Without the benefit of vitamins, you would not be able to live up to your full potentially, physically and mentally. The way to get vitamins into your body is to eat the food, that will give you these things.
Our bodies need to consume a certain amount of vitamins on a daily basis in order for it to function properly and remain healthy. Even if you eat balanced meal everyday, you could still have the lack of necessary vitamins. There are a variety of causes of vitamin deficiency. For instance, a person who has poor eating habits, can have a vitamin deficiency. Many foods that are high in fat, such as fried foods, sugary drinks and other junk food items lack vitamins. There are even certain medications that can hinder the absorption of vitamins. A person who has a vitamin deficiency will experience a variety of symptoms. Recent medical researches have proved that almost all types of diseases can be producted by the deficiency of vitamins. They are important for you as well as for good and healthy lifestyle.
Improper diet deprives the body of essential tools to function smoothly. In time, this will lead to disease that can affect your mind and your body. However, it is never too late to start good eating habits.
There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins. You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement.
Let’s speak about vitamin C. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient required by the body for the development and maintenance of scar tissue, blood vessels, and cartilage.
Here is the list ofvitamin C rich foods: red and green hot chili peppers; guavas, papayas; bell peppers; fresh herbs (thyme and parsley); dark leafy greens; broccoli, kiwi fruits; oranges.
THE ROLE OF MEDICINE IN MODERN SOCIETY
Performers: Rahhal A.O., Ponomarev D.A. -students I rate faculty stomat
Academic adviser: teacher Mishuk E.A.
Foreign languages department with Latin language and medical terminology
Higher state educational establishment of Ukraine “Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy”, Poltava
People have long been seeking to learn to win all around. One of the worst enemies that are generally encountered in a human way is a disease with a variety of diseases, divided into many species and subspecies. Science, which is developing a weapon against a variety of diseases, is the medicine and its role in human life is invaluable. Let’s imagine a situation: You dislocated arm. What will you do? Naturally, you will need to provide their own support themselves, but in any case you should see a doctor. It was he, the representative of medicine, and will address your issue with the arm.Again, without medicine development of modern society is impossible, because the total duration of a person's life is falling rapidly, and, therefore, would fall, and the population of the earth. Invaluable role of medicine is great, because thanks to it are the treatment of many dangerous and fatal diseases. Recall the events of the last 100 years. How many have been invented in the science and all it was good for the person. But the main difficulty is that every year the progress of the disease and should not be underestimated. But do not underestimate the medicine...
Виконавці: Ажажа К. А., Бессараб В.Р. – студ. II курсу мед. ф-ту
Науковий керівник: доц. Пісоцька О.О.
Кафедра іноземних мов з латинською мовою та медичною термінологією
Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are two main types of breast cancer:
– Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this type.
– Lobular carcinoma starts in the parts of the breast, called lobules, that produce milk.
In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast.
Breast cancer may be invasive or noninvasive. Invasive means it has spread from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast. Noninvasive means it has not yet invaded other breast tissue. Noninvasive breast cancer is called "in situ." Many breast cancers are sensitive to the hormone estrogen. This means that estrogen causes the breast cancer tumor to grow. Such cancers have estrogen receptors on the surface of their cells. They are called estrogen receptor-positive cancer or ER-positive cancer.
Over the course of a lifetime, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Risk factors you cannot change include:
– Age and gender -- Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. Most advanced breast cancer cases are found in women over age 50. Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer than men.
– Family history of breast cancer -- You may also have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have a close relative who has had breast, uterine, ovarian, or colon cancer. About 20 - 30% of women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease.
– Genes -- Some people have genes that make them more likely to develop breast cancer. The most common gene defects are found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes normally produce proteins that protect you from cancer.
– All women should practise breast awareness. This involves getting to know what's normal for your breasts in terms of look and texture, so you can spot any changes and get them checked as soon as possible.Early breast cancer usually does not cause symptoms. This is why regular breast exams are important. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include:
– Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt
– Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange
– Fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear to yellow, green, and look like pus
– Men can get breast cancer, too.
– Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include:
– Swelling of one arm (next to the breast with cancer)
Remember, although most lumps are harmless and will turn out not to be cancerous, you should still get them checked by a doctor as soon as possible, especially if you're young.
Exams and Tests
The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and risk factors. Then the doctor will perform a physical exam, which includes both breasts, armpits, and the neck and chest area. Tests used to diagnose and monitor patients with breast cancer may include:
– Breast MRI to help better identify the breast lump or evaluate an abnormal change on a mammogram
– Breast ultrasound to show whether the lump is solid or fluid-filled
– Breast biopsy, using methods such as needle aspiration,ultrasound-guided, stereotactic, or open
– CT scan to see if the cancer has spread. Mammography to screen for breast cancer or help identify the breast lump Mammography is the process of using low energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or microcalcifications.
– Like all X-rays, mammograms use doses of ionizing radiation to create images. Radiologists then analyze the images for any abnormal findings. It is normal to use lower-energy X-rays (typically Mo-K) than those used for radiography of bones.
Breast cancer treatments
– Stage 0 and DCIS -- Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy is the standard treatment. There is some controversy on how best to treat DCIS.
– Stage I and II -- Lumpectomy plus radiation or mastectomy with some sort of lymph node removal is the standard treatment. Hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy may also be recommended following surgery.
– Stage III -- Treatment involves surgery, possibly followed by chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and biologic therapy.
– Stage IV -- Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or a combination of these treatments.